Experimental investigations of the PMMA bone cement distribution inside a model of lumbar vertebrae
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LfC Ltd. Medical, 41 Kożuchowska St., 65-364 Zielona Góra, Poland
Lodz University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Turbomachinery, Wólczańska 219/223 St., 90-924 Łódź, Poland
Molecular and Nanostructural Biophysics Laboratory, BioNanoPark Laboratories, 114/116 Dubois St., 93-465 Lodz, Poland
Artur Bonik   

Submission date: 2022-12-18
Acceptance date: 2022-12-28
Publication date: 2022-12-30
Engineering of Biomaterials 2022;(165):23–30
The use of bone cement in procedures such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty can reduce pain and mechanically support the spine. This study aimed to evaluate whether air entrapped within bone cement affected its distribution in a vertebral body model. The study included 3D printed anatomical models of vertebrae together with their internal trabecular structure. Aeration was achieved by mixing the bone cement using three different altered procedures, whilst the control sample was prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The further two samples were prepared by reducing or increasing the number of cycles required to mix the bone cement. A test rig was used to administer the prepared bone cement and introduce it into the vertebral model. Each time the injection was stopped when either the cement started to flow out of the vertebral model or when the entire cement volume was administered. The computer tomography (CT) scanning was performed to evaluate aerification and its influence on the bone cement distribution in each of the patient-specific models. The large number of small pores visible within the cement, especially in the cannula vicinity, indicated that the cement should not be treated as a homogenous liquid. These results suggest that a high level of aerification can influence the further cement distribution.