Biological and mechanical research of titanium implants covered with bactericidal coating
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Institute of Machines and Materials Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Ship Technology, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza Str., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
Submission date: 2022-10-09
Acceptance date: 2022-12-07
Publication date: 2022-12-08
Engineering of Biomaterials 2022;(165):17–22
Materials used in bone implants should not only be non-toxic to the surrounding tissues, but also should promote osseointegration and minimize the risk of infection. Infections are a serious problem contributing to implantation failure. They are associated with pain, immobilization, and the necessity of reoperation. In extreme cases, they can lead to significant inflammatory changes in the bones, which, in turn, can lead to amputation and even death. After implantation, the surrounding tissues are damaged. In addition, implants are susceptible to bacterial colonization due to the lack of microcirculation. Therefore, scientists are working on antibacterial coatings to prevent the adhesion of bacteria before tissue regeneration.
The paper concerns the biological and mechanical properties of titanium implants with an antibacterial coating. The Ti13Zr13Nb alloy samples were coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings using the electrophoretic deposition technique (EPD). Subsequently, the surface of the samples was modified with silver, copper, and nickel nanoparticles by the immersion method. Different titanium sample types (i.e. HAp-only and nanometals-enriched coatings) were placed in a bacterial solution for a period of one month. Each sample was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation, nanoscratch, and contact angle tests. The significant amount of dead biofilm on the surface proves the effectiveness of antibacterial activity. The wettability assessment showed that the samples were hydrophilic. The conducted tests of mechanical properties indicate the heterogeneity of the coatings.