Assessment of the properties of HAp micropowders after ion exchange process in silver nitrate solution
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Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
Clinical Department of Orthopedic-Traumatic, Oncological and Reconstructive Surgery, St. Barbara Specialized Regional Hospital No. 5, Sosnowiec, Plac Medyków 1, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Engineering of Biomaterials 2021;(161):15–20
Bioceramic materials, such as hydroxyapatite (HAp), are characterized by high biocompatibility in the presence of tissues and body fluids without causing toxic or allergic reactions. Hydroxyapatite, due to its similarity to structures found in bones, is used both in the form of powders, e.g. as additives to bone cements, and implants coatings. However, this material is not characterized by antimicrobial properties, therefore attempts are made to improve its properties by introducing additional elements into the hydroxyapatite structure. Thanks to HAp’s high ion-exchange ability, silver can be introduced into its structure. The calcium ions present in the HAp structure can be easily replaced by silver ions to create a material endowed with high biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. The presented study is based on the analysis of the morphology of the modified powders via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), their chemical composition via X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and chemical structure via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The powders obtained through the ion exchange were mixtures of silver phosphates Ag3PO4 and HAp. The highest silver content was found in the sample modified with a 1M concentration of AgNO3 in the aqueous solution. It was also determined that the annealing of the obtained powders under vacuum at 800°C resulted in the formation of metallic silver and a change in the structure of HAp to β-TCP.